The New York Hall of Science Hosts 1001 Inventions – Muslim Heritage in Our World:
A Conversation with Dr. Margaret Honey
At some point in their education, students of western history will learn a term that describes a period of time between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance (5th- 12th centuries CE) when the so-called “light of civilization” dimmed and stagnated: The Dark Ages.
What the term Dark Ages doesn’t take into account is that much of the world was, in fact, experiencing a golden age of scholarship and literature.
Within an area stretching from southern Spain and northern Africa, across the Middle East and along trade routes through India and the Hindu Kush into China, universities were homes to scholars, scientists, mathematicians and artists. One of those universities, al-Qarawiyin, was founded in Morocco in 841 CE by a woman, Fatima al Fahri, and is considered by the Guinness Book of World Records to be the oldest continuously operating academic degree-granting university in the world.
Throughout the Muslim world, Greek and Latin texts were being translated into Arabic, artisans were perfecting techniques in making fine pottery and paper; and scientists, mathematicians and physicians were charting the universe and the body.
Al-Idrisi’s 12th-century world map.
1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World, an award-winning exhibition sponsored by the Foundation for Science Technology and Civilization, launched in Istanbul and London, and now at the New York Hall of Science, is the first multi-disciplinary exhibition to highlight how science is and has been a global endeavor, how the term “dark ages” might not be true; and how, as we reframe world culture in terms of a global community, the Muslim world has been part of a continuum of inventions and scholarship that began long before Rome rose to power.
In 2010, 1001 Inventions won a Google Science and Technology Award for its interactive initiative. In May 2010, the Cannes Film Festival board awarded 1001 Inventions the Gold Award for Best Education Film for its companion film, Library of Secrets, starring Oscar-winner Sir Ben Kingsley.
“A large percentage of the general public is unaware of the influence that Muslim scholars of the Middle Ages had on future generations, right up to the present day,” says Dr. Margaret Honey, CEO of the New York Hall of Science where 1001 Inventions kicked of a U.S. tour.
Honey, widely recognized for her work using digital technologies to support learning across the disciplines of science, mathematics, engineering and technology, believes that expanding our knowledge of science and its history can contribute to a vibrant educational future.
We recently spoke with Honey, who explains, “1001 Inventions has helped me think about the ways in which scientific ideas travel. While science is always set in a specific historical and socio-political context, the simple truth is that ideas in and of themselves, know no boundaries.”
Dr. Margaret Honey
WRR: One of the components of the 1001 Inventions Exhibition that intrigued us most – particularly since few women in any culture are given prominence in the historical record – was the story a wealthy Tunisian woman named Fatima al-Fahiri (ca 850) who built Al-Qarawiyyin University in Fes, Morocco.
In a larger context, how do you see the inclusion of prominent women in exhibitions like this reframing the views girls and boys and their teachers have about women in science and education?
Margaret Honey: What’s important about Fatima al-Fahiri’s story is that she creates not only a sense of pride for younger girls, but also a sense of possibility. She is someone that young girls can identify with, and for both boys and girls, the exhibit helps us to see science as the creation of people, their passions, and interests.
WRR: 1001 Inventions is a fascinating look at the flowering of science and scholarship in the Near East, the Middle East, North Africa and Spain during the years when Western Europe entered what has become known as The Dark Ages. Who approached whom about hosting the 1001 Inventions? How did it come to the New York Hall of Science?
Margaret Honey: Our colleagues at The Exhibitions Agency approached us on behalf of 1001 Inventions. They were planning a US tour which will bring the exhibition to Los Angeles and the National Geographic Museum in Washington, DC; and wanted to kickoff in New York. We were impressed by the extensive scholarship that went into the production of the exhibition and also by the way it employs hands-on exhibits, video interactives and even a short film starring Ben Kingsley to engage visitors in a story about how ideas travel from one age to the next.
WRR: In an article in the New York Times, art critic Edward Rothstein claims the exhibition has exaggerated the importance of contributions from the Islamic world to modern science. However, the exhibition is geared toward children who often have no knowledge outside the traditional western curriculum. What’s your response to that charge?
Margaret Honey: Historians stopped using the term “dark ages” decades ago, but it still resonates in popular culture. 1001 Inventions isn’t curated for specialists and doesn’t draw conclusions without historical evidence. Like any exhibition we present, our intention is to engage as broad an audience as possible and encourage their curiosity. The scholarship of this exhibition is supported by a wide array of resources where interested people can discover more about the scientific legacy of Muslim civilization and then make their own assessments.
WRR: And how have children and their teachers responded? Any examples?
Margaret Honey: More than 20,000 field trip visits have been booked for just the first two months of the exhibition’s run at NYSCI. We are seeing not only New York City public elementary and middle schools – which make up the majority of our school field trip audience – but also visits from older students, and independent and private schools that haven’t previously visited.
WRR: What have you personally learned from this particular exhibition?
Margaret Honey: The exhibit has helped me to think about the ways in which scientific ideas travel. While science is always set in a specific historical and socio-political context, the simple truth is that ideas in and of themselves, know no boundaries. This is something that younger children (K-12) are not exposed to in school, but it is key to building an understanding of science as a human and historically grounded enterprise.
WRR: You are a pioneer in the field of technology and education for children. How is technology shaping the way children interact with the world?
Margaret Honey: A key advantage of technology and the Internet in particular is that textbooks aren’t the only game in town for teaching and learning. Educators have more options and learners have more opportunities to engage with each other and with a broader array of information. Kids have more channels for interacting with the world. Access to information, to different kinds of communication channels, and to rich media environments also means that kids need different powers of discernment. The obvious way to think about this is the idea that ‘just because it’s online, doesn’t mean it’s true.’ Our children have to learn different strategies for evaluating the viability of information. They have to learn different conventions for communicating, and they have to understand the ways in which rich media environments are composed to obtain certain effects.
WRR: Created initially as a pavilion for the 1964 World’s Fair, the New York Hall of Science bills itself as New York City’s hands-on science and technology center. How do you see the New York Hall of Science’s Mission evolving with advances in technology, and how can the Hall of Science enhance education for children and adults?
Margaret Honey: Technology also means there’s more competing for children’s time and focus. So we have to hold their attention and interest once we have it. At NYSCI, we believe that giving children an opportunity to interact with material things is a key component of learning. We’re in the process of building a new environment focused on design-based STEM learning, where kids will have rich opportunities to design, build, make, create and simply mess-around – all processes that are key to learning and engagement.
We will use technologies to extend and enhance these kinds of engagements. One of my colleagues, David Kanter, who is directing a new center on Play, Science and Technology learning is developing a series of technology games that extend the science learning that can evolve from children’s play on the playground. At NYSCI we think the physicality of learning is important – making, tinkering, exploring with ones’ hands and body. We also think that well designed technology environments can extend and enhance this kind of learning by giving kids, parents, and teachers tools that enable a concept to be explored in ways that would be hard to do physically. The core idea – to quote Frank Wilson – is to connect the hand and the mind.
WRR: Can exhibitions like 1001 Inventions spark a radical rethinking of how we study science?
Margaret Honey: I think the exhibition underscores the central role an institution like ours can play in improving science education. We can have an impact with hands-on exhibitions that textbooks alone can’t achieve. Because the exhibit exposes us to science and scholarship through the personal lens of the innovators, it helps us to understand science as a human endeavor. This may seem obvious, but I think for many of us, this represents a shift in how we perceive and think about “science.” In schools, sciences is taught as a collection of largely immutable facts, and to the extent that we learn about the scientists themselves, they are portrayed, more often than not, as larger-than-life men. It’s hard for most of us to see ourselves in such images. 1001 creates a different kind of opening, and it’s quite stunning to see our young Muslim visitors taking in what the exhibit has to offer.
Interactive Exhibition – New York Hall of Science – Fatima al-Fahiri
1001 Inventions continues its run at the New York Hall of Science through April 24, 2011. It will move on to the California Science Center in Los Angeles and then, in 2012, to the National Geographic Museum in Washington, D.C.
In 2006, Joy E. Stocke founded Wild River Review with Kimberly Nagy; and in 2009, they founded Wild River Consulting & Publishing, LLC. With more than twenty-five years experience as a writer and journalist, Stocke works with many of the writers who appear in the pages of Wild River Review, as well as clients from around the world.
In addition, she is Senior Editor for Wild River Books and has shepherded numerous writers into print. She has interviewed Nobel Prize winners Orhan Pamuk and Muhammud Yunus, Pulitzer Prizewinner Paul Muldoon, Paul Holdengraber, Host of LIVE from the NYPL; Roshi Joan Halifax, founder of Upaya Zen Center; anthropologist and expert on end of life care, Mary Catherine Bateson; Ivonne Baki, President of the Andean Parliament; and Templeton Prizewinner Freeman Dyson among others.
In 2006, along with Nagy, Stocke interviewed scientists and artists including former Princeton University President Shirley Tilghman and Dean of Faculty, David P. Dobkin for the documentary Quark Park, chronicling the creation of an award-winning park built on a vacant lot in the heart of Princeton, New Jersey; a park that united art, science and community.
In addition, she has written extinsively on her travels in Greece and Turkey. Her memoir, Anatolian Days and Nights: A Love Affair with Turkey, Land of Dervishes, Goddesses & Saints, based on more than ten years of travel through Turkey, co-written with Angie Brenner was published in March 2012. Stocke and Brenner are currently working on a cookbook, Anatolian Kitchen, to be published in 2016.
Stocke’s essay “Turkish American Food” appears in the 2nd edition of the Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (OUP, 2013). The volume won both International Association of Culinary Professionals (IACP) for Beverage/Reference/Technical category, 2014; and the Gourmand Award for the Best Food Book of the Year, 2014.
She is the author of a bi-lingual book of poems, Cave of the Bear, translated into Greek by Lili Bita based on her travels in Western Crete, and is currently writing a book about the only hard-finger coral reef in Mexico on the Baja Sur Penninsula. She has been writing about environmental issues there since 2011.
A graduate of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, with a Bachelor of Science in Broadcast Journalism from the Agriculture Journalism School, she participated in the Lindisfarne Symposium on The Evolution of Consciousness with cultural philosopher, poet and historian, William Irwin Thompson. In 2009, she became a Lindisfarne Fellow.
Works by Joy E. Stocke in this Edition
AIRMAIL – LETTERS FROM AROUND THE WORLD
AIRMAIL – VOICE FROM SYRIA
ARTS – ART
COLUMNS – THE MYSTIC PEN
FOOD & DRINK – ANATOLIAN KITCHEN
FREYMAN & PETERSON- Your Life is a Book: How to Craft and Publish Your Memoir
LITERATURE – BOOK REVIEWS
LITERATURE – ESSAYS
LITERATURE – MEMOIR
LITERATURE – POETRY
LIVE FROM THE NYPL
2013 – Three Questions: Festival Director Jakab Orsos talks about Art, Bravery, and Sonia Sotomayor
Critical Minds, Social Revolution: Egyptian Activist Nawal El Saadawi
INTERVIEW – Laszlo Jakab Orsos: Written on Water
Tonight We Rest Here: An Interview with Poet Saadi Youssef
Georgian Writer David Dephy’s Second Skin
On the High Line: Diamonds on the Soles of Our Shoes
Car Bombs on the West Side, Journalists Uptown
New York City – Parade of Illuminations: Behind the Scenes with Festival Director Jakab Orsos
The Pen Cabaret 2008: Bowery Ballroom — Featuring..
Anatolian Days and Nights: A Love Affair with Turkey, Land of Dervishes, Goddesses and Saints
Daring Collaborations: Rolex and LIVE from the NYPL at the New York Public Library Composing a Further Life: with Mary Catherine Bateson
UP THE CREEK
Up the Creek: Volume 1, Number 1
Up the Creek: Volume 1, Number 2.5
Up the Creek: Volume 1, Number 3.3
Up the Creek: Number 4.4
Up the Creek: Beautiful Solutions
Up the Creek: Create Dangerously
Up the Creek: What Price Choice?
Up the Creek: Before and After: September 11, 2001
Up the Creek: Crossing Cultures: Transcending History
Up the Creek: Man in the Mirror; A Map of the World
Up the Creek: Stories and the Shape of Time
Up the Creek: The Divine Road To Istanbul
WRR@LARGE – WILD COVERAGE
UNESCO World Heritage Site Under Threat of Mega-Devlopment Sparks International Protests
The Other Side Of Abu Ghraib — Part One: The Detainees’ Quest For Justice
The Other Side of Abu Ghraib – Part Two: The Yoga Teacher Goes to Istanbul
WRR@LARGE – WILD ENVIRONMENT
WRR@LARGE – WILD FINANCE
WRR@LARGE – SLOW WEB
WRR@LARGE – WRR BOOKS
In 2006, Kimberly Nagy founded Wild River Review with Joy E. Stocke; and in 2009, they founded Wild River Consulting & Publishing, LLC. With more than twenty years in the field of publishing, Nagy specializes in market outreach and digital media strategies as well as crafting timeless articles and interviews. She edits many of the writers who appear in the pages of Wild River Review, as well as clients from around the world.
Kimberly Nagy is a poet, professional writer, and dedicated reader who has interviewed a number of leading thinkers, including Academy-Award winning filmmaker, Pamela Tanner Boll, MacArthur Genius Award-winning Edwidge Danticat, historian James McPherson, playwright Emily Mann, biologist and novelist, Sunetra Gupta and philosopher Alain de Botton.
Nagy is an author, editor and professional storyteller. She received her BA in history at Rider University where she was influenced by professors who stressed works of literature alongside dates and historical facts–as well as the importance of including the perspectives of women and minorities in the historical record. During a period in which she fell in love with writing and research, Nagy wrote an award-winning paper about the suppression of free speech during World War I, and which featured early 20th century feminist and civil rights leader, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn.
Nagy continued her graduate studies at University of Connecticut, Storrs, where she studied with Dr. Karen Kupperman, an expert in early contact between Native Americans and the first European settlers. Nagy wrote her Masters thesis, focusing on the work of the first woman to be accepted into the Connecticut Historical Society as well as literary descriptions of Native Americans in Connecticut during the 19th century. Nagy has extensive background and interest in anthropological, oral history and cultural research.
After graduate school, Nagy applied her academic expertise to a career in publishing, in which she worked for two of the world’s foremost publishers—Princeton University Press and W.W. Norton—as well as at Thomson, Institutional Investor Magazine, Routledge UK, and Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic.
Kimberly Nagy in this Edition
AIRMAIL – LETTERS FROM AROUND THE WORLD
ARTS – ART
ARTS – FILM REVIEWS
ARTS – MUSIC
ARTS – PHOTOGRAPHY
The Triple Goddess Trials: Fire in the Head: Brigit’s Mysterious Spark
The Triple Goddess Trials: Introduction
The Triple Goddess Trials – Meeting Virginia Woolf at the Strand
The Triple Goddess Trials: Me and Medusa
The Triple Goddess Trials: Aphrodite and the Lightbulb Factory
The Triple Goddess Trials: Goddess of Milk and Honey
The Triple Goddess Trials: Kali’s Ancient Love Song
ASHLEY – Renee Ashley: A Voice Answering a Voice
BELLI – Giocanda Belli – The Page is My Home
BOLL – Pamela Tanner Boll: Dangerous Women: An Interview with Academy Award Winner Pamela Tanner Boll
DANTICAT – Create Dangerously- A Conversation with Edwidge Danticat
CHARBONNEAU – A Cruise Along the Inside Track: With Le Mobile’s Sound Recording Legend Guy Charbonneau
de BOTTON – The Art of Connection: A Conversation with Alain de Botton
GUPTA – Suneptra Gupta – The Elements of Style: The Novelist and Biologist Discusses Metaphor and Science
HANDAL – Nathalie Handal – Love and Strange Horses
HOLT – Rush Holt: An Interview with Rush Holt
KHWAJA – Waqas Khwaja: What a Difference a Word Makes
MAURO: New World Monkeys: An Interview with Nancy Mauro
MOSS – Practical Mystic–Robert Moss: On Book Families, Jung and How Dreams Can Save Your Soul
OGLINE – BEN FRANKLIN.COM: Author & Illustrator Tim Ogline explains why Ben Franklin would be a technology evangelist today
OLSEN – Greg Olsen – Reaching for the Stars: Scientist, Entrepreneur and Space Traveler
PALYA – Beata Palya – The Secret World of Songs
SCHIMMEL – Moonlight Science: A Conversation with Molecular Biologist and Entrepreneur, Paul Schimmel
SHORS – Journey into the Male & Female Brain: An Interview with Tracey Shors
von MOLTKE and SIMMS – Dorothy von Moltke and Cliff Simms: Why Independent Bookstores Matter, Part I
WARD – On the Rocks: Global Warming and the Rock and Fossil Record – An Interview with Peter Ward, Part One, and
On the Rocks: Global Warming and the Rock and Fossil Record – An Interview with Peter Ward, Part Two
WILKES – Labor of Love: An Interview With Architect Kevin Wilkes
LITERATURE – POETRY
LIVE FROM THE NYPL
The New York Public Library at 100: From the Stacks to the Streets
Paul Holdengraber: The Afterlife of Conversation
That Email Changed My Life: Rolex Arts Initiative. Pulitzer Prize Winning Poet Tracy K. Smith Celebrates Rolex Arts Initiative
First Editions / Second Thoughts — Defending Writers: PEN and Christie’s Raise One Million Dollars to Support Freedom of Expression
ON AFRICA: May 4 to May 10 — Behind the Scenes with Director Jakab Orsos: Co-curated by Award-Winning Author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
The Page is My Home: Giaconda Belli – Nicaraguan Poet, Writer and Public Intellectual
Georgian Writer David Dephy’s Second Skin
The Power of Conversation: David Grossman and Nadine Gordimer – The Arthur Miller Freedom to Write Lecture
NEW FROM WILD RIVER BOOKS – Brief Eulogies at Roadside Shrines
Daring Collaborations: Rolex and LIVE from the NYPL at the New York Public Library
Wild River Books Announces the Stoutsburg Cemetery Project: The Untold Stories of an African American Burial Ground in New Jersey
Wild River Books: Surprise Encounters by Scott McVay
Wild River Review and Minerva’s Bed & Breakfast Presents – “BITTER” Writing in a Weekend: How to Write About the Things We Can’t Change
ALLEN – Quarks, Parks, and Science in Everyday Life: Filmmaker Chris Allen’s Documentary Where Art Meets Science in a Vacant Lot
MANN – Boundless Theater: An Interview with Emily Mann
Keeping Time: A Conversation with Historian James McPherson